Category: engineering

General opinions and theories of the methods which govern our engineering industries

About Door Product Pressure Ratings and Water Infiltration

QUESTION: Why do certain door products rate a certain p.s.f like -60/+60 then lower ratings are shown throughout the product approval?   Usually, the higher door pressure performance are not taking the water testing & infiltration conditions into consideration.  A deeper search into the evaluation will likely reveal limitations of performance if water infiltration is …

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What are Limitations of Small & Large Missile Impact Designs?

We are frequently asked what are the limitations applied on Small Missile Impact and Large Missile Impact products. Engineering Express takes into consideration the following code limitations while preparing design charts for operable windows/glass doors and non-operable windows/glass doors:  Referencing Florida Building Code Seventh Edition, (2020) Chapter 2411.3.2.4.i & 1709.5.1.3.i for Operable Windows and Glass …

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Requirements of Substituting Glass Panels In Insulating Glass Systems

ASTM 1996-17 Regarding Glass Substitution Section A1.8 states: “A1.8.1.1 The impact resisting lite (monolithic or laminated) of an insulating glass unit shall be composed of the same glass type and treatment with equal thickness or thicknesses of glass, and thicker or equal interlayer of the same manufacturer and type as originally tested and approved. Section …

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Requirements of Substituting Insulated Glass Spacers in Glazed Products

ASTM 1996-17 Regarding Insulated Glass Spacers. This 2017 standard added section A1.9.2 stating tested air spacers making up the insulated laminated unit can be substituted with other spacers. “A1.9.2 If the conditions in A1.8.1.3 are met, a change in spacer type, shape, or dimension is allowed automatically.” Section A1.8 states: “A1.8.1.3 Substitutions for insulating glass …

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Loss of Capacity Due To Welded Aluminum In Railings – Signs – Structures

Regarding any aluminum railing project, it is imperative to understand the life-safety issue that arises when welding an aluminum railing or sign post. For example, a rail is classified as a life-saving fall guard for any elevation above 31 inches above grade. The aluminum alloys normally used (such as 6061-T6) get their strength from a …

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The Updated Saffir-Simpson Scale

First, it needs to be said that there is a complicated formula that converts wind velocity to wind pressure.  Many wind pressure values can exist from a single wind velocity which vary based on roof height, topography, terrain, even code version, and more. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based …

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Is Steel or Reinforcing or Fibermesh Required in Posts & Footings of Building Components?

INTRODUCTION The main purpose foundations serve is to distribute and resist the forces or loads experienced by the host structure due to wind, rain, snow, seismic, & other load conditions. When it comes to building components such as generators, signs, and fences the code leaves a gray area for foundation design. This happens because most …

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ASCE 7 Main Wind Force vs. Components & Cladding Explained (MWFRS vs. C&C)

ASCE 7 separates wind loading into three types: Main Wind Force Resisting System (MWFRS), Components and Cladding (C&C), and Other Structures and Building Appurtenances. MWFRS is defined as “(a)n assemblage of structural elements to provide support and stability for the overall structure.” Typically, members which receive loading from two surfaces are designed to resist MWFRS …

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Types of At-Grade Footings Explained

Here’s a description and illustrations we’ve created for footing types we frequently reference in our work for sunrooms, pergolas, carports, screen rooms, signs, and similar at-grade building component structures.  Photos of each appear below.   An isolated footing is used to support a single post. Isolated footings are independent footings which are provided for each …

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ASCE Risk Categories Explained

Background Building codes require that buildings be classified by their level of importance in determining the risk taken with safety factors against their failure under critical design loads. Calculations for the structure’s overall stability, flexure, and fatigue are all based on the assumption of a given risk category design level.  ASCE 7 references risk category …

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